Atrial Septal Defect

The heart has four chambers. The right and left sides of the heart are separated by a muscular wall (septum). This prevents blood without oxygen from mixing with blood that contains oxygen. The heart also contains valves that separate the chambers and connect to major blood vessels Congenital heart defects are structural problems that develop in the heart before a baby is born or at birth. A significant part of a baby's heart develops in the first 6 weeks after conception, but further growth and development continue throughout a woman's pregnancy. During this process, defects can develop in any part or parts of the heart and may result in abnormal blood flow through the heart after the baby is born. Heart defects may include abnormally formed valves or blood vessels, abnormal or missing connections between arteries or veins and the heart chambers, or "holes" between the chambers. As a result of these abnormalities, the supply of blood and oxygen to the body is limited, which can lead to cyanotic heart defects, abnormal openings between the heart chambers that allow oxygen-poor blood from the right side of the heart to mix with oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the heart. When a large amount of oxygen-poor blood mixes with oxygen-rich blood, it causes a bluish tint (cyanosis) in the skin, lips, and nail beds or heart failure.

Abnormally shaped heart valves, in particular, can lead to complications such as narrowed or leaky heart valves or irregular heartbeats. The cause of congenital heart defects can be genetic or environmental, but the cause of most defects is unknown. If the fetus's heart circulation does not adapt properly after birth, a heart defect may result. Heart defects occur more commonly in premature infants whose heart and lung anatomy are not mature enough to adjust to life outside the womb. Congenital heart defects are often apparent at birth but sometimes may not become evident until adolescence or adulthood. The problems that result can range from minor to serious, and some are life-threatening. Most congenital heart defects are treated shortly after birth. Some may not need any treatment because they will heal on their own, and sometimes it is appropriate to delay treatment until a baby—especially a premature infant—stabilizes and can better tolerate surgery. Many children with corrected heart defects will lead normal lives, but they usually will require continued medical follow-up throughout adulthood.

Treatment for babies with larger or more complex defects usually requires surgery. Rarely, an infant may need a heart transplant. The earlier and more successful the treatment for congenital heart disease, the healthier a child will be while growing up. Some congenital heart defects can be repaired entirely during early childhood; many defects are repaired by the time a child is 2 years old. Sometimes heart defects need more than one procedure or surgery to correct them, and treatment may continue into the the teenage years or adulthood. Ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect An abnormal opening in a wall separating the parts of the heart known as. Ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect is an abnormal hole located in the walls between the two atria. Tiny defects called patent foramen ovale are present in up to 30% of people and are of no consequence except in unusual circumstances. Moderate size to larger size defects should be corrected and may require heart surgery.Atrial/Ventricular septal defects are a group of rare heart defects that are present at birth (congenital).

The normal heart has four chambers with two upper chambers known as atria. They are separated from each other by a fibrous partition known as the atrial septum. The two lower chambers are known as ventricles and are separated from each other by the ventricular septum. Valves connect the atria (left and right) to their respective ventricles. A small opening between the two atria (foramen ovale) is present at birth. Shortly after birth, the atrial septum gradually closes and covers this opening. In infants with atrial septal defects, the atrial septum may not close properly or may be malformed during fetal development. In this disorder, the opening between the atria persists long after it should be closed, resulting in an increase in the workload on the right side of the heart and excessive blood flow to the lungs. The pathophysiologic common denominator of these lesions is an obstruction to normal blood flow. The most frequent are obstructions to ventricular outflow: valvular pulmonic stenosis, valvular aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta). Less common are obstruction to ventricular inflow: tricuspid or mitral stenosis and cor triatriatum. Ventricular outflow obstruction can occur at the valve, below the valve (e.g., double-chambered right ventricle, subaortic membrane), or above it (e.g., branch pulmonary stenosis or supravalvular aortic stenosis). Unless the obstruction is severe, cardiac output will be maintained and the clinical symptoms of heart failure will be either subtle or absent. This compensation predominantly involves an increase in cardiac wall thickness (hypertrophy), but in later stages it also involves dilatation

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